Babylon was the capital city of the ancient civilization, Babylonia, located in Mesopotamia, or southern current-day Iraq. King Nebuchadnezzar built the "Great Engine" beneath the city to contact the Aetherium, the realm of the Babylonian god Marduk. Babylon is also a place of Judeo-Christian significance, as it was the supposed location of the fabled Tower of Babel.
By 1947, the city had fallen into a state of disrepair. When Indiana Jones arrived in Babylon, he saw it was in ruins, and upon arrival remarked to himself "Babylon, a city of mud, bricks, and not much else."