The Palawan Volcano Temple was a many-chambered, part artificial, part natural cavern constructed inside a live volcano on the island of Palawan in the Philippines and used as the sanctuary for Taklit's piece of the Infernal Machine . It was discovered in 1947 by a team of Soviet soldiers led by Dr. Gennadi Volodnikov; it was first fully explored by Indiana Jones later that same year.
After he fled Babylon with his part of the Infernal Machine, a disciple of Marduk named Taklit journeyed to the Philippines and integrated himself with the natives of Palawan. Eventually revered as a living god, Taklit ordered his subjects to create a stone temple deep within the active volcano itself and, using his skills in magic, created rock monsters to guard the hallways and a Lava Guardian to protect his Machine part in the inner sanctum. Much of the temple appeared to have been several smaller, natural, open caves that were enlarged, tunneled through, and connected by humans. When Taklit died, his people buried him in a funeral barge with a special key; the barge floated on a small subterranean lake within the temple. Several rivers of lava run through the temple and various columns and statues can be found carved with tribal faces.
During 1947, Indiana Jones navigated the perilous temple while dodging pursuing Soviet soldiers. Eventually the Soviets called off their chase, allowing Jones to navigate the inner lair unhindered by them. Eventually, Jones defeated the lava guardian and acquired Taklit's part, only to be chased yet again by the Russians as he departed the temple.